Continuous Reflectivity Measurements for Growth Rate and Emissivity-Corrected Pyrometry in MBE Systems

Obtaining continuous reflectivity measurements in MBE systems is challenging due to the variation in the reflectivity signals caused by substrate wobble. These variations are exacerbated by the relatively long substrate-to-detector distances in MBE systems (typically greater than 24”) compared to MOCVD systems (typically less than 12”). This results in oscillations in both the measured reflectivity and the temperature. With optics configured to mitigate these effects, the kSA Integrated Control for Epitaxy (kSA ICE) instrument provides reflectivity and emissivity-corrected pyrometry (ECP) measurements that can be utilized with MBE for real-time epitaxial material calibration and process control in both continuous and triggered modes.

Read the full technical note cowritten by John Klem of Sandia National Laboratories and k‑Space personnel, “Continuous Reflectivity Measurements for Growth Rate and Emissivity-Corrected Pyrometry in MBE Systems”, to learn about instrument configuration and measurement of AlAs and GaAs deposition on GaAs substrates.


Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525. This paper describes objective technical results and analysis. Any subjective views or opinions that might be expressed in the paper do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Department of Energy or the United States Government.

k-Space Tools in Published Research

We added several new reference citations to our website this quarter to help you see how others are using k-Space metrology tools in their research. Here are highlights of a few of the references we added.

kSA 400 Analytical RHEED System
“Epitaxial n++-InGaAs ultra-shallow junctions for highly scaled n-MOS devices”
P. Tejedor, M. Drescher, L. Vázqueza, L. Wildeb
Applied Surface Science, Volume 496, 1 December 2019, 147321

The kSA 400 RHEED analysis system was used to aid in the calibration of the Ga, In, and As2 fluxes with the RHEED intensity oscillation technique on a GaAs (001) substrate.

kSA BandiT Temperature Measurement
“Strain stabilization of far from equilibrium GaAsBi films”
Margaret A. Stevens, Kevin A. Grossklaus, Thomas E. Vandervelde
Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 527, 1 December 2019, 125216

During the experiment, kSA BandiT was used to monitor temperature with the band-edge temperature measurement feature.

kSA ICE Integrated Control for Epitaxy
“An in situ monitored and controlled etch process to suppress Mg memory effects in MOCVD GaN growth on Si substrate”
Rohith Soman, Srinivasan Raghavan, and Navakanta Bhat
Semiconductor Science and Technology, Volume 34, Number 12

The kSA ICE system was used to monitor reflectivity oscillations and wafer surface temperature during the experiment.

You can see citations for all of our products on our article references page or within each individual product’s page. Additional information, including full product specifications, is also available on each product’s page. If you would like us to include your paper as a reference on our website, please contact us at [email protected].

Photo of New Construction at k-SpaceUpdate on Construction of Additional Building

As we announced when we broke ground in October, k‑Space is growing its capacity with the addition of a second facility. Here is an exciting new drone video that shows the construction progress. This building is right next door to our existing location and will be ready to move into in July 2020. We are looking forward to continuing to serve you as we expand.

Come Visit Us at These Upcoming Events!

ISGN 8 – 8th International Symposium on Growth of III-Nitrides – May 31 to June 4 – San Diego, CA

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Thin Film and Industrial Metrology Systems

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