Immediate analysis of sheet resistance conductivity of thin-film coated panels. Fully customizable system (hardware/software) enables users to configure settings to fit their specific needs.


The kSA Inline Sheet Resistance Metrology system monitors the thin film sheet resistivity on glass panels that pass through the system. Sheet resistance (also known as surface resistance or surface resistivity) is a common electrical property used to characterize thin films of conducting and semiconducting materials to determine end product performance. It is a measure of the lateral resistance through a thin square of material, i.e., the resistance between opposite sides of a square. The system consists of three pairs of sensor probes that are mounted on a conveyor support.  It is Ideal for flat panel display, solar, and other coated glass applications.


  • Real-time data validation of sheet resistance conductivity across panel allows for down-stream processing and analysis.
  • Real-time monitoring allows immediate analysis of sheet resistance conductivity of thin-film coated panels.
  • Fully customizable system (hardware/software) enables users to configure settings to fit their specific needs.
  • In-process comparison of live data against a master reference substrate (nominal and tolerances) provides QC validation during panel processing.
  • The ability to see changes in sheet resistance that could affect end product performance prevents non-compliant product from entering the process flow.
  • Factory integration capabilities enable facilities to incorporate the tool into existing systems (factory alarms, PLC, email alerts, etc.).


  • Scans single-coated glass (with a conductive layer) of glass thicknesses ranging from 2 to 12 mm
  • Standard product measures in situ sheet resistance range of 1-100 Ω/□ with +/- 0.05 Ω/□ Measurements in other resistance ranges are possible.  Please contact kSA with requirements.
  • Includes a self-calibration step at periodic intervals in between sample measurements.
  • Uses a customizable master sheet resistance value (Ω/□) and tolerance range from a control sample to determine pass/fail limits
  • Allows for customizable measurement locations (3 sites possible) and alignment across the conveyor based on needs and requirements
  • Identifies inline Panel IDs/Barcodes (add-on functionality option)
  • Detects drift in conductive coating thickness across and potential impacts to end product performance
  • Inspects lites and panels to quickly identify non-compliant coated glass sheet resistance and conductivity values, based on preset limits
  • Captures, analyzes, and stores data using proprietary k-Space software

All of this is done through the kSA Inline Sheet Resistance system, which includes the frame with detectors and standalone electronics cabinet with rackmount CPU, monitor, keyboard, and mouse.


The tool consists of three pairs of sensor heads that are mounted on a conveyor support. Each pair has a pole piece separation of 25mm, and panels pass through at approximately the center point of this space.

The system uses the Eddy-Current system approach to measure sheet resistance in a non-contact manner.

  • The top sensor probe acts as the exciter coil and sends a high-frequency magnetic field that induces oscillating current within the conductive material to be measured.
  • The bottom sensor probe acts as the measurement coil. When a material is present on the conveyor, the system measures the modified amplitude and phase of the signal in the measurement coil and then compares that against a set of calibration standards to calculate the sheet resistance of the material.
Thin Film and Industrial Metrology Systems

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