Measures the layer thickness of film on glass and solar panels to below 100 nanometers. Measurement of dielectric coatings that are too thin for optical measurements.


The kSA XRF (X-Ray fluorescence) tool measures the layer thickness of film on glass and solar panels that are too thin for reliable optical measurements. It uses an X-ray source, detector, and sophisticated software to measure the X-ray emission spectrum to calculate film thickness. This tool can be integrated into existing QC systems, along with the appropriate alarms, to flag thickness issues.


  • A protective custom frame enclosure houses the X-ray source and detector.
  • The tool bridges over conveyor lines for easy installation and future factory access to the conveyor line.
  • An illuminated sign indicates when the X-Ray source is in use.
  • Photo eyes detect the leading and trailing edges of the panels to trigger the system to start and stop data collection.
  • The electronics cabinet CPU provides processing and data storage capabilities.
  • The light tower gives go/no go indications.


  • This technology allows for the measurement of dielectric coatings that are too thin for optical measurements such as those below roughly 100 nm.
  • Can also provide a thickness on thin metal films on various substrates.
  • Real-time data acquisition provides immediate detection of defects in the coating thickness and feedback control.
  • Customizable software enables users to configure the settings to fit their specific needs.
  • In-process QC validation ensures that coating thickness is within tolerances.
  • Factory integration capabilities enable manufacturers to incorporate the metrology into existing systems (factory alarms, PLC, email alerts, etc.).
  • Straightforward functionality requires little to no operator interface and only occasional operator calibration.


  • Measures, analyzes, and stores data using proprietary k-Space software.
  • Can interface with existing QC systems.
  • Starts and stops data acquisition based on triggers from the in-line photo eye detectors.
  • Designed for typical glass and solar panel conveyor speeds.
  • Fully automated and able to communicate with factory automation.
  • Warning and alarm signals are fully configurable through the easy-to-use software.
  • The single detector head can be positioned at any location across the panel width, and multiple detector heads are possible.
  • A measurement range of 0-500 nm (+/- 1 nm) is possible. The sensitivity and measurement uncertainty depends on the element measured.


  • Windows-based software can run in Engineer or Operator mode. The Operator mode is limited to basic options to simplify use on factory floor.
  • The software can display real-time acquisition charts to provide the coating thickness.


  • The system is comprised of an X-ray tube with a high voltage generator along with an X-ray detector system. The X-ray detection system is a combined solid-state detector, amplifier, pulse height analyzer, and multichannel analyzer.
  • Following spectrometer energy calibration, the system identifies the spectral peaks of the X-ray emission spectrum and collects the peak intensities for further processing.
  • The tool measures the appropriate atomic species, based on the customer’s coating formula and measurement needs.
Thin Film and Industrial Metrology Systems

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